Many of the items in this category have been found in Afghanistan or Pakistan, either from archaeological digs or sold from family heirlooms. They belong to cultures extending from ancient Persia to the old civilizations of Northern India and Tibet. A few are from the old Pyu kingdom of Burma.
For an introduction to dzi beads check this blogspot, wikipedia and this website.
About the Indus Valley Civilization, one of the oldest in the world and where etched cornelians have been found, see wikipedia.
And on this website, there is a page devoted to the pumtek of Burma, made of fossilized palm wood. This blogspot is dedicated to the same subject.
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